A few days ago several MailMate users made me aware of the mailsploit.com site. The site describes a type of phishing attack known as email spoofing and it provides some examples which makes numerous email clients1 fail to display the real email address of the sender — as given in the “From:” header of the email.
If you are in a hurry then all you need to know is that MailMate did fail on some of these examples (although for different reasons than other email clients) and that I have fixed it in the latest test release of MailMate. Hold down ⌥ when clicking “Check Now” in the Software Update preferences pane to try it out. You should get revision 5441 or newer. Note that revision 5440 also fixes the issue, but in practice this doesn’t help much in terms of making spoofing harder. More on that below if you have time for some more details.
The technical part of an exploit based on “mailsploit” is described well at the web site. In short, it tricks some email clients into finding the wrong email address within an email address header like “From”. The email client would then display the wrong sender. The definition of “wrong” here is based on RFC5322.
It is important to understand that spoofing a “From” header has always been easy and, in my opinion, it is still easy. One attempt to change this is DMARC and this is where “mailsploit” shows that such an attempt is doomed to fail if email clients are not improved.
After I fixed the “mailsploit” related bugs in MailMate I realized that it didn’t really fix a more basic problem in MailMate. This is because many parts of the interface only display the name part of an address header. The email address is only shown if there is no name part. This makes it easy to spoof a sender like this:
From: "firstname.lastname@example.org" <email@example.com>
You can even make it more believable like this:
From: "Donald Trump <firstname.lastname@example.org>" <email@example.com>
In MailMate, you’ll only see the first part in the message list “From” column, but both are shown in the message view (although not in the compact headers mode). The same is true for both Apple Mail and Gmail (I didn’t check any other email clients). Apple Mail won’t even show you the real address in the message view unless you open a context sensitive menu.
Nothing here is new, but most email client users might not be aware of how little they should trust a “From” header. Bugs or no bugs.
In the most recent test release of MailMate I’ve added the following improvement: Whenever the name part of an address header contains a
@ then it’s replaced with a skull (💀). That should at least make the user aware of simple attempts to spoof an address header.
The reason so many email clients have parser bugs is likely because it’s ridiculously hard to parse an email address header. An entire book could be written on this subject. Once again I’ll emphasize that an email client should be able to parse any email generated by any (buggy) version of any email client/generator ever used. ↩